Yes. You can collect royalties from Spotify out of the United States. The company pays two main types of royalties: recording and publishing royalties.
Spotify pays recording royalties for a song’s sound recording (master) rather than its composition.
The payment goes to the distributor or aggregator if you are an independent artist. This is the service that uploads your music to a streaming platform. As a musician signed to a record label, Spotify pays your major or independent label instead.
How much an artist gets depends on their agreement with the company Spotify pays. Location is not a problem for musicians when collecting recording royalties.
Spotify pays publishing royalties to songwriters. This is for the composition of the song. If you wrote the lyrics to a song, or part of it, just collecting royalties from your distributor is not enough.
Every country has a local Performing Rights Organization (PRO) that collects publishing royalties. In Japan, you have JASRAC, Germany has GEMA, India has IPRS, etc.
Royalties differ from country to country. As an artist, you should register your song with the proper collection society in your country to get every payment you deserve for your work.